Athax KHOVEL EITE - Diabetes
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Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life.
Major Types of Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes is classified into two types:
1. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM): It is also called  
 as type I diabetes.
2. Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): It is  
 also called as type II diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that "unlocks" the cells of the body, allowing glucose to enter and fuel them. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, and was previously known as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus results from insulin resistance (a condition in which the body fails to properly use insulin), combined with relative insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, either the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells ignore the insulin.
For all types of diabetes, the metabolism of carbohydrates (including sugars such as glucose), proteins, and fats is altered
Cause of diabetes
In Type 1 diabetes the cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, causing a severe lack of insulin. This is thought to be the result of the body attacking and destroying its own cells in the pancreas - known as an autoimmune reaction.
It's not clear why this happens, but a number of explanations and possible triggers of this reaction have been proposed. These include:
infection with a specific virus or bacteria;
exposure to food-borne chemical toxins; and
exposure as a very young infant to cow's milk, where an as yet unidentified component of this triggers the autoimmune reaction in the body.
However, these are only hypotheses and are by no means proven causes.
Type 2 diabetes is believed to develop when:
The receptors on cells in the body that normally respond to the action of insulin fail to be stimulated by it - this is known as insulin resistance. In response to this more insulin may be produced, and this over-production exhausts the insulin-manufacturing cells in the pancreas;
there is simply insufficient insulin available; and
the insulin that is available may be abnormal and therefore doesn't work properly.
The following risk factors increase the chances of someone developing Type 2 diabetes:
Increasing age;
obesity; and
physical inactivity.
Rarer causes of diabetes include:
Certain medicines;
pregnancy (gestational diabetes); and
any illness or disease that damages the pancreas and affects its ability to produce insulin e.g. pancreatitis.
What doesn't cause diabetes
Eating sweets or the wrong kind of food does not cause diabetes. However, it may cause obesity and this is associated with people developing Type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes is not contagious. Someone with diabetes cannot pass it on to anyone else.
Symptoms of Diabetes  
increased thirst (Polydipsia)
increased urination(Polyuria)
Increased appetite (Polyphagia)
Weight loss despite increased appetite
Abdominal pain
fatigue (severe weak ness)
Absence of menstruation
Blurred vision
Frequent or slow-healing infections
Erectile dysfunction
Itching of skin
Complications of Diabetes are - Immediate complications: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and coma. It is an important and serious complication which occurs especially in IDDM. Late complications are
Myocardial infarction and stroke: They occur due to atherosclerotic changes in cerebral and coronary blood vessels
Diabetic retinopathy which may lead to irreversible blindness.
Diabetic cataract due to damage and changes in lens protein.
Diabetic retinopathy due to damage of the kidney. It is characterized by proteinuria, hypertension and oedema.
Peripheral neuritis manifesting as loss of sensation and tingling.
Diabetic gangrene caused by atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels, which lead to decreased blood supply.
Skin lesions such as boils, ulcers and carbuncles. Ulcers of foot are very common which should be taken care of. Otherwise it may progress to loss of limb.
Pulmonary tuberculosis: Diabetic patients are susceptible to pulmonary
General management and Treatment of diabetes included as
Diet and weight control
Meal planning includes choosing healthy foods, eating the right amount of food, and eating meals at the right time. You should work closely with your health care provider to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet. Your specific meal plans need to be tailored to your food habits and preferences.
Managing your weight and eating a well-balanced diet are important. Some people with type 2 diabetes can stop medications after intentional weight loss, although the diabetes is still present.
Regular physical activity
Regular exercise is important for everyone, but especially if you have diabetes. Regular exercise helps control the amount of glucose in the blood. It also helps burn excess calories and fat so you can manage your weight.
Exercise improves overall health by improving blood flow and blood pressure. It decreases insulin resistance even without weight loss. Exercise also increases the body's energy level, lowers tension, and improves your ability to handle stress
The diabetic patient needs to be educated about change in life-style, diet, exercise and drugs. He should be taught how to monitor blood and urine glucose
When diet and exercise do not help maintain normal or near-normal blood glucose levels your doctor may prescribe medication
Oral ant diabetic drugs

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